ABIU (Pouteria caimito) A smooth, brilliant yellow fruit with sweet translucent flesh. The delicious flavour is reminiscent of creme caramel. The fruit is considered a delicacy for those who can grow it successfully. Most suited to warm subtropical and tropical conditions.
Ht 5; Fr Low; Pol Partial; Evergreen; H Jan-Mar, July, Aug.
ACEROLA CHERRY (Malphighia glabra) This bright red cherry-like fruit has varying tastes during different stages in maturity. When fully ripe, the fruit is juicy and aromatic with its acid content giving it a sweet acid apple-like flavour.
Ht 4; Fr High; Pol No; Evergreen; H August to March.
AMBARELLA (Spondias cytherea) A rapid-growing tree with slightly ridged amber-coloured fruit the size of a large plum. The ripe fruit can be eaten fresh or used to make delicious and refreshing juices. Young steamed leaves are eaten as a vegetable. The green immature fruit is very similar in taste and consistency to green mango and is used frequently in curries and sambals. A valuable addition to the home orchard.
Ht 15; Fr Med; Pol Partial; Evergreen; H May- July.
ANISEED MYRTLE (Backhousia anisata) This stunning rainforest tree has strong aniseed-scented leaves that make a delicious refreshing aniseed tea. The leaves are often used for flavouring desserts, sauces and preserves.
Ht 15; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H All year.
APPLE, TROPICAL (Malus domestica) These delicious and crunchy apples are very similar to their cold-climate cousins, however they only require a low amount of chill. Ideal for growing in warmer climates, these unique varieties don't require frost to initiate budding.
Tropic Sweet - is very similar to the Jonathan apple and cross pollinates well with Anna or Dorsett.
Anna - pollinates well with Dorsett and is similar in taste and shape to Red Delicious.
Dorsett Golden - is a sweet aromatic apple with yellow fruit and a delightful pink blush and firm white flesh. It pollinates well with Tropic Sweet or Anna.
Ht 8; Fr Med; Pol Yes; Deciduous; H Nov to Dec.
APRICOT (Prunus armeniaca) There is no comparison to tree-ripened apricots with their delicious flavour, sweet juicy flesh and unique aroma. The low-chill varieties make it possible for warm climate gardeners to grow fruit. The self-pollinating varieties listed below require from 300 to 500 hours chilling below 7°C.
Glengarry - is a heavy-cropping variety with small pale golden fruit and a slight blush. The tree is large, vigorous and heavy bearing. 300 to 450 hours chill required.
Bulida - is very well suited to the inland areas west of Gatton and Lismore. The dark golden fruit is large and firm with sweet flesh. 500 hours chill required.
Bentley - Very similar to the Glengarry, this local selection originates from just outside Kyogle. A hardy tree, well adapted to local conditions. 450 hours chill required.
Ht 7; Fr High; Pol No; Deciduous; H Oct to Nov.
ARROWROOT (Canna edulis) An edible Canna displaying attractive red flowers similar to its close relative the Call1la lily. The large round red rhizomes can be eaten raw, cooked as potatoes or used as a flour and thickening agent. The tubers multiply prolifically in deep rich friable soil.
Ht 1-2; Fr High; Pol No; Root crop; H All year.
ASPARAGUS (Asparagus officinalis) is a valuable perennial for the garden that can produce for over 20 years if the beds are well maintained. Easy to grow and thrives on a variety of soils.
Ht 1; Fr High; Pol No; Spears; H Subtropics: May to July; Temperate: August to December.
ATHERTON RASPBERRY (Rubus fraxinifolius) is a sweet red-orange berry that grows on an upright suckering shrub with cane like stems. It is delicious eaten fresh and its popularity is seeing it reach supermarket shelves. The taste is milder than the European raspberry. The plant is very resilient to warmer growing conditions and can produce up to 3 kg per plant.
Ht 3; Fr High; Pol No; Semi-deciduous; H Autumn to Winter.
AVOCADO (Persea americana) A valuable commercial crop, avocados thrive on rich well-drained soil. Due to flowering habits, avocado varieties are categorized into A and B groups. One variety is sufficient to produce adequate crops for the home garden, however by planting a tree from both groups, the harvest will be much greater. Avocados begin to ripen once picked and may take up to 10 days to reach maturity.
Sheppard (B) - A small to medium pear-shaped fruit with thick, green skin that peels easily. The fruit has an excellent flavour, medium oil content and does not turn brown when cut. The tree has a spreading habit and is a high yielding. It displays good resistance to frost and anthracnose. H Feb/March.
Fuerte (B) - A pear-shaped fruit, small to medium in size with slightly rough, thin green skin. The flesh is of a buttery texture with excellent flavour. The tree has a vigorous spreading habit that shows alternate bearing characteristics. Requires warm temperatures for best fruit set. H April-June.
Pinkerton (A) - A small-seeded rounded fruit with the later crop being more pear-shaped. The fruit is medium sized with green leathery pliable skin. The thick flesh has a smooth-texture, good flavour and high oil content. It shows some cold tolerance and bears consistently heavy crops. H June to August.
Sharwill (B) - A medium sized fruit with rough green skin closely resembling the Fuerte but slightly more oval in shape. The fruit has a rich flavour, good oil content and small seed. The Sharwill represents up to 20% of all avocados grown in NSW, is a regular and moderate bearer with excellent quality fruit. Sensitive to frost. H June, July.
Hass (A) - The Hass is the most popular variety due to both its superior taste and excellent keeping qualities. The medium-sized fruit is pear-shaped with an excellent creamy nut-flavoured flesh, no fibre and a seed held tightly in its cavity. The leathery rough dark purple skin turns to black when ripe.
H August to December Ht 8; Fr High; Pol Beneficial; Evergreen; H Apr to Dec.
BABACO (Carica pentagona) This attractive torpedo-shaped fruit has an effervescent flesh hence its other name, the 'champagne fruit'. The texture of the golden fruit is light and refreshing. The slightly acid flavour has a hint of strawberry, pineapple and paw paw and can be made into a tasty thirst-quenching drink. The un ripe green fruit is delicious used as a green vegetable in curries and chutney. A very close relative of the paw paw, the babaco needs fertile well-drained soil and warm conditions to grow well. A mature tree can reward you with up to 25 to 100 fruit per year.
Ht 2.5; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Most of the year.
BAY TREE (Laurus nobilis) This handsome pyramid shaped tree makes a superb tub specimen, hedging plant or topiary sculpture due to its positive response to pruning. The leaves of the bay are used as the popular culinary seasoning used in all types of cooking throughout the world. To store bay leaves, pick early in the day and dry quickly under weight to prevent curling. Store in an air-tight jar.
Ht 8 - 10; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H all year round.
BERRY FRUITS (Rubus spp. Generally regarded as cool-climate plants, berries will produce good crops in a warm climate if planted in shaded areas. For best results stake and mulch well in order to keep the foliage and fruit off the ground. Remove old canes (2-year-old canes that have born fruit during late spring, early summer) and tie current season's growth.
Thornless Loganberry is a cross between the blackberry and the red raspberry. The long cylindrical berry is a delightful dusky purple-red when ripe. The aromatic fruit becomes sweeter when sun ripened and is delicious eaten fresh or used in preserves and desserts.
Thornless Youngberry has excellent sweet juicy fruit that ripens to a deep black-purple. The thornless variety doesn't produce as heavily as the thorned variety but is far less treacherous when picking.
Thornless Boysenberry has juicy, tart, wine-red to almost black fruit with a dust-like coating and distinctive aroma. They are delicious eaten fresh or are used in pies, jam, ice cream, and juices.
Ht 1; Fr High; Pol No; Semi -deciduous; H Late Spring to early Summer.
BLACK SAPOTE (Diospyros digyna) Not surprisingly this is one of our most popular fruits and if you like Chocolate you'll love Black Sapote! Commonly known as "Chocolate Pudding Fruit" this amazing fruit is low in fat and an excellent source of Vitamin C, containing about 4 times as much as an orange. The fruit is delicious eaten fresh or used as a chocolate substitute in recipes and milkshakes or simply mix the pulp with yoghurt and lemon juice for a refreshing treat. The green fruit is picked when hard and allowed to soften and go brown within 3-6 days. At the ripe stage - you should be able to press the skin with your fingers and leave an indent. A Chocoholic's dream come true!
Cocktail - this small oblong fruit is a perfect size for eating fresh out of hand and has an excellent flavour. The tree is ideal for small areas as it only reaches 3 - 4 metres.
Superb - A selection originating from north Qld. The small round fruit tends to be seedless if not cross-pollinated. Best suited to warm growing conditions.
Bernecker - An improved cultivar that has proved very popular in Australia. The near spherical fruit is medium to large with only 1 or 2 seeds. A prolific producer.
Maher - A very large fruit, flattened at both ends and with few seeds. A small tree to only 4 metres, it is a prolific bearer of very high quality fruit.
Mossman - Bears the largest of the black sapote fruit, making it ideal for manufacturing. The fruit has a high pulp content and a medium flavour. Each tree can produce up to ½ ton. A very large round fruit with few seeds.
H 3-6; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H August to December.
BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium spp) These varieties of blueberries perform well in warm conditions and provide a good bounty of berries. To grow successfully, provide organic matter and ample moisture along with a soil pH of 5.5, also ideal for azaleas. Blueberries make excellent potted specimens provided 25% of peat moss is added to the potting mix. Potted plants are a great gardening project for children who delight in harvesting the fruit.
Low chill varieties such as 'Misty' and 'Sharpblue' can be pruned after cropping to induce a second crop that will ensure a supply of delicious fruit throughout the year.
Sharpblue - Excellent quality large fruit. Very low chill requirements and self-pollinating. A tough and vigorous bush. H July to November.
Gulfcoast - A low chill high bush variety. Excellent flavour, firmness and good picking scar. A vigorous upright bush with moderate toughness and good tolerance to root rot. H November onwards (earlier north of Bundaberg).
Misty - The Misty performs well on the rich red soils of northern NSW where it is both productive and popular. An early fruiting variety, with light blue medium to large fruit of excellent flavour. Hardy if grown under ideal conditions. H July to September.
Powderblue and Brightwell - 2 Rabbiteye selections that perform well in the subtropics. They require each other for cross pollination. Hardier and adaptable. H Dec to February.
Sunshine Blue has a unique tangy flavour and features showy hot-pink flowers. It is a semi-dwarfed bush with a branched compact habit. Better suited than other blueberries to soils with a higher pH. Self pollinating.
Ht 3; Fr Low; Pol beneficial; Evergreen; H July to Feb.
BLUE LILLY PILLY (Eugenia oleosum) A native tree with delightful purple fruit; this is a favourite of the lilly pilly group. The delicate fruit is aromatic with a sweetish, slightly gingery, or turpentine flavour. Fruit is spongy and delicate. The glossy green leaves have numerous large oil glands that give a distinctive smell when crushed and distinguish it from other lilly pillies.
Ht 8; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H March to May.
BRAZILIAN CHERRY (Eugenia uniflora) A highly ornamental shrub with spreading branches and aromatic foliage. The young bronze foliage turns a glossy deep green when mature and deep red in cold, dry weather. The delicate white flowers are followed within 3 weeks by ribbed fruit that changes from green to orange to maroon when fully ripe. The fruit is delicious eaten out-of-hand or as an ingredient in jelly, sauce and pies. Refrigeration enhances the flavour and makes these a good substitute for strawberries.
Ht 6; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H February to May.
BUNYA NUT (Araucaria bidwillii) is a very large majestic tree with a straight trunk, large prickly leaves and separate male and female flowers. The 10 kg female cones contain delicious edible nuts that can be eaten raw or boiled to make extraction from the hard shell easier. Nuts can be sliced or pureed and added to desserts and savoury dishes or roasted as a potato substitute. The nuts' flour can also be used to make breads and cakes.
Ht 40; Fr High; Pol No; Evergreen; H every three years, Jan to March.
BUSH FOODS Look for descriptions on these bush foods:
Aniseed Myrtle, Atherton Raspberry, Burdekin Plum, Bunya Nut Candle Nut, Cedar Bay Cherry, Cut-leaf mintbush, Davidsons Plum, Finger Lime, Ginger, native Lemon scented Myrtle, Lilly Pilly, Midyim, Native Tamarind, Peanut tree, Plum pine, Riberry.
BURDEKIN PLUM (Pleigynium timorense) This close relative of the Mango is a native tropical rainforest tree. The deep purple fleshy plum-like fruits need to be held for some days to soften and mellow. Early settlers (probably taught by the Aborigines) were known to bury them in the ground, which had the effect of softening them and increasing palatability. The fruit can be eaten raw, or used in wines, jams and jellies.
Ht 20; Fr Low; Pol Yes; Evergreen; H Summer.
CANDLE FRUIT (Parmentiera edulis) This highly ornamental tree is a conversation piece due to the interesting shape of its leaves and the greenish-cream flowers that grow directly from the stem or branch tips. The 30-cm-long fruit resembles a greenish-yellow cucumber. The fibrous fruit is juicy with a sweet flavour similar to sugar cane. Closely related to the Jaboticaba.
Ht 9; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H THC.
CANDLE NUT (Aleurites moluccana) A north Qld native, this large rainforest tree has a spreading crown of large leaves. The brown fruit envelopes the highly nutritious nuts that are delicious roasted. Commonly used in Indonesian dishes, curry pastes and as a meat tenderizer, the nuts should not be eaten raw, as the toxin in the oil can induce nausea and vomiting. The early settlers found that the high oil content of the nuts enabled them to burn with a smoky flame for up to 20 minutes.
Ht 20; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H December to February.
CANISTEL (Pouteria campechiana) is a slender and erect tree with cream-coloured fragrant flowers. The fruit is round to oval and matures to a yellow-orange colour, hence its other common name of 'egg fruit'. The yellow flesh has a sweet earthy flavour and a meaty texture similar to a boiled egg. The fruit is delicious eaten fresh out-of-hand with a little salt and lemon juice added. Canistels are often added to sweet custards or made into delicious eggnog-like milk shakes by blending with milk.
Aurea produces a large elongated fruit of excellent quality. Prolific bearer.
Gray is a selection from Northern Qld. The sweet fruit is of excellent quality.
Limberlost - This tree was highly recommended to Greg whilst he was traveling the north coast of Qld in search of new and exciting varieties. Large sweet fruit of excellent quality.
Ht 8; Fr, Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H March to July.
CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana) is a low-lying bush with its bright orange berry enclosed in a pale brown parchment-like case, called the Cape. The berry is the size of a cherry tomato, is very aromatic and full of tiny hard seeds. They are delicious eaten straight from the Cape or made into gooseberry jam.
Ht 3; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H all year round.
CAPULIN CHERRY (Prunus salicifolia) This tree closely resembles other stone fruit species. The white fragrant flowers are followed by deep-maroon to purple cherry-like fruit with a green flesh. The sweet flavour becomes slightly bitter nearer to the skin. The fruit is delicious eaten fresh, made into jams, preserves or wine.
Ht 10; Fr High; Pol Yes; Semi-deciduous; H TBC.
CARAMBOLA (Averrhoa carambola) This star-like fruit has five golden wings that reveal a star-shaped pattern when cut crosswise. The juicy transparent flesh has a citrus quality with a floral accent and is delicious eaten fresh, made into juice or into a chutney. The tree makes an ideal specimen plant due to its attractive foliage and has the added bonus of producing large quantities of fruit.
Kary is a heavy cropper with extremely sweet fruit. It exhibits more cold-tolerance than other varieties. Excellent flavour, bright skin and juicy flesh with few seeds.
Kembagen has bright yellow-orange fruit that is slightly elongated and pointed. The flesh is juicy and firm with few seeds. Flavour rich and sweet; excellent dessert quality.
Ht 10; Fr Low; Pol Yes; Evergreen; H October to May.
FALSE CARDAMOM (Aframomum angustifolium) is a leafy ginger-like plant that grows in clumps and makes an excellent low screen that adds a tropical feel to any garden. While the seeds don't resemble true cardamom, the leaves can be used in desserts, to add flavour when steaming rice or used to wrap fish.
Ht 1.5; Fr High; Pol No; Evergreen; H all year round.
CAROB TREE (Ceratonia siliqua) This elegant tree is the great chocolate impersonator! Carob is a delicious low fat food often referred to as 'fake chocolate' due to its similarities to cocoa in taste and texture. A Mediterranean tree, it favours arid conditions that are naturally alien to fungus and pests. The tree can take up to 15 years to bear pods but fruits well into old age with a large tree producing up to 1 ton of beans per harvest. The pods can be eaten fresh and are a delightful lolly-type stick for children to chew on.
Ht 15; Fr High; Pol Male and Fern. or Bisexual; Evergreen; H.
CASANA (Cyphomandra casana) is a fast-growing shaped shrub with large hairy heart-shaped leaves. It is closely related to the tamarillo but has a milder (some say much better) taste. The purple-black flowers are followed by cream fruit. Prolific bearer. Requires a protected semi-shaded position and well-drained soil.
Ht 3; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H most of year.
CASIMIROA (Casimiroa edulis) is a pleasurable tasting fruit reminiscent of vanilla custard mixed with creamy banana and peaches. Although often called a white sapote, it is not a member of the sapote family. The green-skinned fruit has white flesh and is used primarily as a dessert fruit.
Reinecke Commercial is an irregular-shaped fruit with attractive golden-orange skin when ripe and few seeds. The fruit is large and flat with a good strong flavour. A popular commercial variety due to its excellent storage and ripening qualities.
Pike is often seen in commercial plantings. The large fruits remain green when ripe and have a bitter skin, however the flavour is superior to most other introduced varieties.
Lemon Gold produces small rounded fruit with a pleasant lemony tang. A good regular cropper in warmer climates with delicious fruit that exhibits excellent keeping qualities. Due to its perfect flowers this is an ideal pollinator for other varieties.
Chris - This selection is from northern Queensland and is far superior to the earlier introduced varieties. The Chris bears so heavily that it may require pruning to minimize limb breakages.
Ht 16; Fr High; Pol Yes; Evergreen; H Dec to Feb.
CEDAR BAY CHERRY (Eugenia reinwardtiana) This delicious fruit shows great potential for the exotic fruit and bush food markets due to the high quality of the fruit. The fruit is very decorative due to its bright orange-red colour.
Ht 5; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Nov to March.
CEYLON HILL GOOSEBERRY (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) An excellent ornamental shrub that produces a spectacular display of deep rose-pink or mauve flowers. Appearing throughout spring, the flowers are followed by small round purple berries that have few seeds. The sweet berries are delicious eaten fresh or in Jams. The bush is very frost hardy and will fruit as far south as Melbourne. It is often seen grown as a highly decorative hedge.
Ht 3; Fr High; Pol No; Evergreen; H May.
CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa) A fast-growing tree that produces abundant crops of nuts during Autumn. Although regarded as a cold climate tree, chestnuts can be grown in the subtropics provided they have well-drained soils to minimize their susceptibility to Phytophthora. Planting 2 varieties will ensure well-filled nut burrs. Seedling chestnuts are worthy of consideration and can start cropping after 4 years.
Reilly originated from a planting made early this century on the Alstonville Plateau. A low chill variety that bears prolifically in Feb/March. Fair nut and keeping qualities.
Moreni is a large nut from WA but originally of Italian origin. Fairly upright habit exhibiting Asian characteristics such as fine wood and pointy buds. Excellent quality.
April Gold An early variety from the Dandenong Ranges in Vic. Originally of European origin, it produces extra large dark coloured nuts. Upright habit, free-falling nuts.
Emerald Gem is from Emerald Lake in the Dandenong region. It is a beautiful spreading tree that is almost weeping in habit. Very prolific, tends to bear heavily which greatly influences nut size. A distinctive orange-tan-coloured nut without stripes. Evidence of Asian parentage.
George Sands Named after the founder of a nursery in the Dandenongs. An upright European tree with large to extra large nuts with only one nut to each burr. Dark glossy brown, thin shelled free falling nut.
Ht 30; Fr High; Pol Yes; Deciduous; H March to April.
CHERIMOYA (Annona cherimoya) It's quite possible that no known fruit compares to the delicious taste of the cherimoya. The white flesh is luscious, soft and sweet and is described by many as having the flavour of mango, pawpaw, bananas and coconut. They're absolutely delicious when devoured icy-cold from the freezer and eaten like ice cream. A large evergreen tree with scented flowers and a scent just like the fruit tastes. Very closely related and similar in appearance to the custard apple. Will crop as far south as Melbourne.
White Cherimoya is a very heavy cropper of large fruit with juicy flesh that can be a little gritty just below the skin. The unique flavours suggests a hint of mango-papaya. A pleasure to eat due to its low seed count. A commercial favourite in California.
Ht 7; Fr Med; Pol by hand; deciduous; H Feb to June.
CHERRY OF THE RIO GRANDE (Eugenia aggregata) This beautiful small tree has very attractive dark glossy-green wax-like leaves and a peeling bark. The showy white flowers are followed by dark purple plum-sized fruit. The fruit can be picked at maturity and frozen for later use, eaten fresh or used in jellies, jams and juices. It is well suited to container growing as it will still produce an abundance of fruit.
Ht 8; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Oct - December.
CHINESE RAISIN (Hovenia dulcis) A fast-growing tree that produces small raisin-like fruit from the trunk. The fleshy thickened fruit stalks, when dried, have the sweet flavour and texture of raisins and can be used in the same way.
Ht 10; Fr High; Pol No; Deciduous; H May to July.
CHINESE WATER CHESTNUT (Eleocarus dulcis) These nutritious underground corms have an appealing crisp nut-like texture when eaten raw and cooked. Plant in wet areas and harvest annually.
Ht 1; Fr Low; Pol no; Aquatic plant; H June or July.
CINNAMON (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) This tree is a highly ornamental tree and the source of cinnamon spice. The spice itself is the bark that is peeled from the branches after 2 years. After stripping the bark, leave for a day so that the inner bark curls into cinnamon sticks as it dries. The base of the leaf can be chewed for a cinnamon flavour. Cinnamon is a very elegant and useful aromatic, much kinder to the palate than the other spice trees.
Ht 8; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H all year.
CITRON - Buddha's hand Citrons are one of the oddities of the citrus family as unlike, other well-known citrus, they're not eaten fresh. This fruit looks like an old shrivelled hand with a thick, uneven, tightly-adhered rind. Low on juice, they can be acidic or sweet. Citrons are grown today for the specialty market, their prime use being as candied peel or for use in religious ceremonies.
Ht 6; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H Winter.
COCONA (Solanum sessiliflorum) The cocona is every bit as equal or superior to the tamarillo. It is a shorter plant and produces fruit of an orange to maroon colour. The white flesh has the aroma and taste of the tamarillo and the naranjilla but is slightly less pronounced. Delicious eaten fresh, in juices or eaten as a vegetable.
Ht 2; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H March to June.
COFFEE (Coffee arabica) If you're one of those people who can't live without their cup of coffee in the morning, then consider growing and producing your own. Easy to process and relatively problem-free, the Arabica thrives in the cooler climate and rich volcanic soil of Australia. In as little as three years the plant will be covered with white, jasmine-scented flower clusters. The masses of green berries that follow mature to a beautiful cherry red, making this an inspirational and decorative addition to any garden. Ideal as an indoor, ornamental or hedging plant.
CRB - Condong Range or Clarence River Bourbon - More cold-tolerant than other varieties. Introduced into Australia over 100 years ago. 10-12 kg can be expected after 5 years.
Arusha - Produces a very large bean, medium strength coffee with good body when roasted. The tree has an open branching structure that makes picking easy.
K7 - A successful and popular commercial variety throughout the Northern Rivers. Grows well in warmer climates.
Catuai - is a high-yielding plant with relatively short branches. The berries hold well on the branches which is favourable in areas with strong winds or rain.
Ht 2; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H June to Sept.
COMFREY (Symphytum officinale) This well-known showy plant is a member of the Borage and Forget-me-not tribe, Boraginaceae. A hardy perennial, its large leaves are rough and hairy all over. Comfrey thrives in almost any soil or situation, but does best in moist conditions. A useful plant, it can be used with great success as a liquid manure, activator for compost heaps, a weed barrier or attractive under story plant.
Ht 1; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H all year.
CUSTARD APPLE (Annona atemoya) This tree offers delicious fruit and succulent soft white flesh that is delicious eaten fresh or blended into ice cream or as a rich creamy drink.
Hilary White - is the best strain of Pink's Mammoth. It has smoother skin and an excellent cropping performance. The fruit is sweet and aromatic.
African Pride - This heart-shaped fruit has a medium thick skin, more seed than the Pink's Mammoth and produces high yields. The early and consistent bearing behaviour, presentable fruit and early maturing is what makes this the main commercial variety.
Late Gold - A stunning golden-bronze fruit with soft skin and a high flesh ratio. Good-sized fruit. Proving to be an excellent performer in the Northern Rivers.
Pink's Mammoth - has the delicious and melting taste of the sugar apple which makes it one of the most popular of the custard apples. As the name suggests the virtually seedless fruit is one of the largest. Top marks for quality, however a lower yield than the African Pride.
Geffner - is an Israeli cultivar with a moderate to heavy cropping capacity. The flavour is exceptionally good and although it performs well it's not superior to the African Pride.
Ht 7; Fr Med; Pol Yes; Semi-decid; H July to Sept.
CUT LEAF MINTBUSH (Prostanthera incisa) This delicate bushy shrub has strong aromatic leaves that can be dried and used as a substitute for mixed herbs. Highly scented.
Ht 1; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H all year round.
DAVIDSON'S PLUM (NSW) (Davidsonia puriens - jerseyana) This tree bears stunning clusters of plum-like fruit with deep dark purple skin and vibrant dark-red flesh. The delicious tangy acid taste makes the fruit a favourite for jams and wines, but for those who appreciate a sharp-tasting fruit, it is delicious eaten fresh. As an understory rainforest tree, it can be grown in shady conditions but is increasingly being planted in full sun as a commercial crop.
Ht 6; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H Aug to Jan.
FEIJOA (Feijoa sellowiana) Sometimes called the pineapple guava, the feijoa, although in the same family is not a guava. Becoming increasingly popular as a commercial crop the fruit has the taste and aroma of strawberry, pineapple, lemon, passionfruit and guava. The tiny edible seeds are embedded in a jellylike centre. The spectacular purple, pink and white flowers have sweet delicious petals that make a superb ingredient in sweets and drinks.
Nazematze - A large, pear-shaped fruit with sweet pulp that doesn't darken after being cut. Excellent quality fruit. Self-fertile but bears heavily if cross pollinated.
Large Oval - A sweet fruit and as the name suggests, of oval shape and good size. Good quality. Self-fertile but will produce heavier crops when cross-pollinated.
Triumph - bears short oval plump fruit with a unique sharp flavour. Good flesh to seed ratio. Bears heavily if crossed with Mammoth.
Mammoth - A large, round to oval fruit with a slightly wrinkled thick skin. Very good flavour and quality. Self-fertile but bears larger fruit with cross-pollination.
Ht 8; Fr Med; Pol beneficial; Evergreen; H Oct to Dec.
FIG (Ficus carica) Fresh figs are as different from the dried form as fresh cherries are to the glacéd cherry. Cut open, they look very decorative and exotic. Eaten fresh, the seeds are indistinct in texture and flavour from the flesh. Eaten dried, the skin thickens and the seeds become grainy and almost crunchy. There are hundreds of varieties and variations between figs but all are sweet and luscious.
Excel - An early-fruiting medium-sized fig with amber pulp. A good all-purpose fig with sweet, rich pulp. Superb, in a word.
Black Genoa - A large-sized fig with purple skin and red flesh that has a very sweet rich flavour. Grown commercially due to its high yields, it is also a popular selection for home gardeners.
Brown Turkey - A brown-skinned medium to large fig with copper-coloured skin and whitish to pink pulp. Very good quality with few seeds. A prolific bearer and popular commercial variety.
White Adriatic - A green to yellow-skinned medium sized fig with red pulp, strong flavour and very good quality.
Prestons Prolific - Very thick flesh, creamy white and juicy, with sweet flavour. Extremely vigorous and late cropping.
Ht 6; Fr High; Pol No; Deciduous; H Oct to March.
FINGER LIME (Microcitrus austraiasica) A long narrow fruit with thin skin that ranges in colour from green, yellow or purple. The fruit contains an acid juice similar to that of a lemon. A delicate rainforest tree.
Ht 3-10; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H Dec to May.
GINGER (Zingiber officinale) Fresh ginger is available in two forms, young and mature. Young ginger has a pale, thin skin that requires no peeling. It is very tender and has a milder flavour than its mature form. Mature ginger has a tough skin that must be carefully peeled to preserve the most delicate and tasty flesh just under the surface. The flavour is peppery and slightly sweet with a pungent and spicy aroma.
Ht 1; Fr Low; Pol No; Deciduous; H June to August.
GINKGO TREE/MAIDEN HAIR TREE (Ginkgo biloba) The Ginkgo tree is used extensively as a landscape tree due to its picturesque, unusual-shaped crown and autumn coloured foliage. The trees become large, making them ideal shade trees. The trees can take around 20-30 years to bear nuts, however grafted trees may bear in as little as 8 years. The sweet nuts taste like a large pine nut, a cross between potatoes and sweet chestnuts when baked. The outer coat of the fresh seeds contain oils that may cause mild dermatitis in some humans, so when picking them up, wear latex gloves. The seeds are usually steamed until the hard shell cracks open, then the kernel removed and eaten like pistachio nuts, or used in pilaf, porridges, soups, vegetable dishes or mixed with rice, tofu, mushrooms and stir-fried vegetables.
Ht 30; Fr High; Pol Yes; Deciduous; H TBC.
GOVERNOR'S PLUM (Flacourtia indica) A small tree that bears large edible berries of dark purple to black and is similar in texture to a European plum. The grafted variety is thornless and self-pollinating.
Ht 3; Fr Low; Pol Yes; evergreen; H Feb to April.
GRAPE (Vitus vinifera) White grapes range in colour from pale yellow-green to light green, and black grapes from light red to purple-black. Grapes are categorized by their uses, either a table grape or wine grape. Wine grapes have high acidity and are therefore too tart for general eating. The grapes listed below have a high resistance to mildew diseases and are well suited to areas with higher levels of humidity.
Carolina Black Rose - Excellent size, colour and texture. High disease resistance. Ideal for the home gardener.
Pink Iona - Sweet variety with pinkish skin and high resistance to downy mildew. Very hardy and well suited to coastal conditions.
Golden Muscat - Large round-oval fruit with golden-yellow skin and a very juicy flesh. A sweet, aromatic, slight Muscat flavour. Excellent quality.
Maroo Seedless - A Carolina Black Rose cross. Medium to large seedless fruit with bluish-black skin and firm flesh that hangs in large loose clusters. Fair tolerance to downy mildew.
Chambourcin - A hybrid wine grape that is well suited to coastal climates. The black fruit is medium to large with high disease tolerance.
Ht 3; Fr Med; Pol No; Deciduous; H Jan to March.
GRAPEFRUIT (Citrus paradisi) New improved red-fleshed varieties give this old fruit a renewed interest. The varieties are sweet and make superb red juices.
Star Ruby - has one of the best internally coloured fruit of the five red-fleshed varieties.
Rio Red - has less colour than Star Ruby and the colour of fruit on individual trees can vary considerably. Needs to be harvested soon after maturity.
Flame - similar to Star Ruby. The Flame has a greater intensity and pinkness of the rind. A heavy-producing variety.
Marsh's Seedless - one of the most commonly grown of the yellow grapefruit. The medium to large fruit is very sweet and juicy. The trees are vigorous and productive.
Honnefs Surprise - An Orange-Grapefruit cross. The sweet fruit has a thin rind, few seeds and is very juicy.
H July to October. Ht 6; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H May to August.
GREEN SAPOTE (Pouteria viride) A close relative of the Mamey Sapote, this tree has smaller, darker green leaves. The dark, dull green fruit turns to gold when ripe and has a superior flavour to the Mamey. The thick orange flesh has a 'melting in your mouth' effect.
Ht 20; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Oct to Dec.
GRUMICHAMA (Eugenia dombeyi) This fruit is the tropical equivalent of the cherry and just as difficult to resist. The purplish-black fruit is borne in clusters and is delicious eaten fresh. The sweet white flesh is highly prized for jams, jellies and pies. If you are looking for a spectacular ornamental specimen, then it would be hard to go past this tree with its magnificent flowers, glossy dark green foliage and full growth habit.
Ht 3; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Feb to April.
GUAVA (Psidium sp.) This sweet, fragrant tropical fruit ranges in size from a small egg-size to that of a medium apple. To eat raw, guavas should be very ripe. They make excellent jams, preserves and sauces.
Strawberry Guava (Psidium cattleianum) - The Strawberry guava is a shrub or small tree. It has a smooth trunk and dark green, shiny, egg-shaped aromatic leaves. Strawberry guava flowers are white with numerous stamens and the edible red fruits are about the size of a golf ball. The flesh is sweet and strawberry flavoured. Frost hardy.
Yellow Cherry Guava (Psidium lucidium) - This is possibly the sweetest guava of all. The small yellow-skinned fruit has a sweet, aromatic, creamy flesh and many small seeds.
Hawaiian (Psidium guajava) - This variety is one of the largest of the guavas and has a high juice content. It is a popular commercial variety with large pink-fleshed fruit.
Indian Guava - The Indian White Guava originated in Florida. The small to medium-sized, roundish fruit reaches 10 cm in diameter. Excellent, sprightly pear-like flavour. Similar to Hawaiian Guava but white-fleshed and moderately seedy.
Mexican Cream Guava - Small to medium-small, roundish fruits. Skin light yellow, slightly blushed with red. Flesh creamy white, thick, very sweet, fine-textured, excellent for dessert. Seed cavity small with relatively soft seeds. Tree upright.
Ht 5; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H Jan to June.
HARDY KIWIFRUIT (Actinidia arguta) Closely related to the ordinary kiwi and similar in appearance, the flesh of the hardy kiwis looks much like a regular kiwifruit with small black seeds and an emerald green colour. Hardy kiwis are generally sweeter than regular kiwifruit.
Ht 10; Fr High; Pol Yes; Deciduous; H Sept to Nov.
HAZELNUT (Corylus avellana) Not usually regarded as a subtropical plant, but those nut enthusiasts willing to give them a try will be rewarded with a small crop of good quality nuts.
Ht 6; Fr High; Pol Yes; Deciduous; H Feb to March.
HORSERADISH TREE (Moringa oleifera) Originating in India, this tree has delicate foliage and attractive pale yellow flowers. It produces long green pods that taste similar to asparagus. The roots are used as a substitute for horseradish and the edible leaves make a highly nutritious vegetable. An ideal shade tree with high drought resistance.
Ht 8; Fr Low; Pol No; Semi-deciduous; H all year.
ICECREAM BEAN (Inga edulis) A large attractive tree with spreading branches and lovely white and yellow pompom-type flowers. The pods look similar to a tamarind pod. Surrounding the inedible black seeds is a thick white juicy pulp that tastes very much like vanilla ice cream. The tree has the added advantage of being nitrogen-fixing and is a good choice as a fast-growing shade tree.
Ht 6; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Dec to March.
JABOTICABA (Myrciara cauliflora) The jaboticaba's habit of producing the fruit directly on the trunk makes this a striking tree. The black fruit has an edible thin, but tough skin. The texture is similar to a grape with a sweet and aromatic flavour. Cropping can begin at 5 years with several crops maturing from spring to autumn. A versatile small tree with decorative coppery foliage that makes for an ornamental specimen tree or superb hedge.
Large leaf Jaboticaba - The plum-size fruit has a much thicker skin that is usually removed due to its slightly bitter taste. The translucent flesh is very sweet and juicy.
Small leaf Jaboticaba bears heavy crops of an excellent quality fruit that can be eaten fresh from the tree.
Yellow Jaboticaba (Myciaria glomurata) The yellow fruit has a distinctive sweet tangy flavour. The tree requires slightly more attention than those above but it is well worth the effort due to its ornamental golden- green pendulous branches.
Ht 3; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Jan to February.
JAKFRUIT (Artocarpus integrifolia) This striking tree bears some of the worlds largest fruit. The golden-yellow flesh has a strong odour but is deliciously sweet, described by some as having a banana bubblegum taste. It is delicious eaten fresh or dried in the sun like dates. The seeds are roasted and the green fruit eaten as a vegetable in curries.
Black Gold - A Northern Qld variety that produces an abundance of small to medium fruit of 12 - 24 kg. Black Gold is a superior choice for subtropical climates due to its cold tolerance. The soft-fleshed fruit has up to an 80% flesh recovery. Very easy to open. Produces very sweet summer fruit.
Cheena - A rich, strong-flavoured fruit that ripens to a golden colour. Produces small fruit between 3 - 8 kg. Quite cold-tolerant and summer-bearing.
Galaxy - Crisp variety, medium-sized fruit 15 - 20 kg. When grown in cooler subtropical climates the fruit is more suited to cooking.
Bosworth - Small fruit 5 - 12 kg that ripens to a light brown. Pollinates well with Yullaten.
Yullaten - Produces small fruit 3 - 12 kg. Crosses well with Bosworth. Cold-tolerant.
Honey Gold - A medium-sized fruit with a fine, crisp flesh. Excellent flavour but produces a lot of latex. Can prove difficult to pollinate.
Ht 8-15; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Jan to June.
JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE (Helianthus tuberosus) The knobby tubers are neither related to the Artichoke or come from Jerusalem, hence the increased use of their other common name 'sunchoke'. The sweet-flavoured tubers can be eaten raw and have a crisp and crunchy texture like water chestnuts. The cooked flesh is tender and moist, tasting like sunflower seeds.
Ht 3; Fr High; Pol No; Deciduous; H Winter.
KEI APPLE (Dovyalis caffra) With its large thorns this dense shrub makes a perfect security fence. The plum-sized golden fruit is aromatic, sweet and tastes very similar to an apricot but with a much higher juice content.
Ht 3; Fr High; Pol Yes (3); Evergreen; H Mar to May.
KERIBERRY (Rubus rugosus var. thwaitsii) Grown commercially in NZ for years, this beauty is capable of bearing almost all year round in warmer climates. The fruit looks like a large blackberry and has a flavour between that and a raspberry. A strong trellis needed for support. Very vigorous.
Ht; 3; Fr High; Pol No; Evergreen; H Autumn and Winter.
KIWIFRUIT (Actinidia deliciosa) Kiwifruit is a great tasting, highly nutritious treat. To eat, cut the fruit in half, then scoop the delicious flesh right out of the skin. It's as easy as eating a soft boiled egg.
Bruno - Large elongated fruit. Dark brown skin with dense, short, bristly hairs. Light-green flesh of good flavour. Ripens early May. Vigorous and productive with a relatively low chilling requirement.
Dexter - Fruit is similar to Haywood only slightly more elongated. Relatively low chill requirement, well-adapted to warmer winter areas. Originated in Queensland as a seedling of Haywood.
Haywood - The main commercial variety in NZ. Best suited to temperate climates. Very large oval fruit with slightly flattened sides. Light greenish-brown skin with dense, fine, silky hair and light -green flesh of a superior flavour. Better keeping qualities than most other cultivars. Moderately vigorous and productive.
Male - A non-fruiting, all-purpose male used as a pollinator for female vines. 1 male per 8 females. Is also used as a pollinator for A. arguta (hardy kiwi).
Ht 3; Fr High; Pol Yes; Deciduous; H March to May.
KUMQUAT (Fortunella species) This small tree has an abundance of dark orange fruit that is delicious eaten fresh or used in marmalades and jams. They make very ornamental tub specimens.
Nagami (Fortunella margarita) The small oval fruit is a brilliant deep orange colour with a highly aromatic skin. The fruit holds on the tree for a long period adding to its high ornamental value. It can be eaten whole as a fresh fruit or in the same way as other kumquats.
Meiwi (Fortunella japonica) Also known as the Marumi. A round, brightly coloured fruit that can be eaten straight from the tree. Both the skin and the flesh are very sweet. Cold hardy.
Calamondin (Citrus madurensis) The bright orange fruit is small, loose-skinned, juicy and acidic. It remains on the tree for long periods, and is available in a variegated form.
Ht 3; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H July to December.
LEMON (Citrus limon) The lemon is good news for gardeners who want a steady supply of fruit all year round. Lemons, Limes and Lemonades can be used to make lemon bread, lemon meringue pie, fresh lemonade and juices. Citrus trees are becoming more and more popular as landscaping plants, offering not only fruit but an attractive form of year-round, glossy, deep green foliage, and fragrant flowers that would rival any.
Eureka - This lemon is probably the most widely-grown lemon in the world. It's a true 'bitter' lemon with a high juice and acid content. With good care, the fruit is thin-skinned and virtually seedless.
Verna - recently introduced into Australia, its origins are unknown but it has been extensively planted throughout Spain. The tree is vigorous with a spreading habit and small thorns. Fruit are less rounded in shape than other varieties and have a pronounced neck with few seeds.
Meyer - This popular variety of 'lemon' is not a true lemon but likely to be a natural hybrid between a lemon and an orange. The lower acidity and reduced bitterness makes it one of the most widely grown home-garden varieties. Very hardy and prolific.
Lisbon - The Lisbon is a good quality bitter lemon with high juice and acid levels. The fruits of Eureka and Lisbon are very similar. Vigorous and productive, trees are very thorny particularly when young.
Villa Franca - Belongs to the Eureka group. A good winter cropper. The large trees are thornier than others.
Bush Lemon - The 'Rough' or 'Bush Lemon" is easily identified by the rough texture of the skin, the seedy fruit and its mildly sour taste. The skin makes a good zest for cooking. A large tree with small thorns.
Ht 6; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H most of year.
LEMONADE - This sweet juicy fruit tastes like lemonade, is devoid of bitterness and can easily be eaten as a fresh fruit. The tree often has thorns and bears several heavy crops each year.
Ht 6; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H most of year.
LEMON GRASS (Cymbopogon citrates) is one of the most versatile of herbs. It makes a delicious herbal tea, is often used in cooking, as an effective pest repellent and an almost impenetrable weed barrier. Tie the outer leaves in a loop and cook with food to impart flavour. Be sure to remove before serving. Incredibly fast to become established and drought tolerant.
Ht 1; Fr High; Pol No; Evergreen; H any time.
LEMON MYRTLE (Backhousia citriodora) The lemon myrtle occurs naturally throughout coastal Qld rainforests. It is a spectacular ornamental tree due to both its appearance and the superb fragrance of its flowers and leaves. The leaves and flowers are used in cooking and as a refreshing tea. It is usually the older and fully hardened-off leaves that are harvested for use. Enthusiasts describe the distilled oil from this tree as 'more lemon than lemon' and it's used extensively to scent confectionery, perfumes, aromatherapy oil and food flavourings.
Ht 6; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H all year round.
LILLY PILLY (Syzygium sp) Australia boasts over 60 different varieties of lilly pillies all of which appear to be edible. They range from a small bush to a large tree and are well respected for their spectacular ornamental qualities. Their tastes vary quite markedly but all have a high pectin content and are well suited to preserving. The trees make excellent screens, windbreaks, bird attractants or garden ornamentals.
Blue Lilly Pilly (Eugenia coolmaniana) With its delightful purplish coloured fruit this lilly pilly is one of the favourites of the group. The fruit bears from 2 years and is borne in clusters. Juicy and crunchy when ripe.
Riberry (Syzygium luehmanii) The small-leaved lilly pilly or riberry produces masses of red pear-shaped fruit. Mature trees can yield up to 80 kg. The fruit exhibits a juicy but slightly acidic clove-like finish reminiscent of cinnamon. It is a very popular ingredient in wildfood dishes. Its handsome purple-red growth makes this lilly pilly one of the favourites.
Scrub Cherry (Syzygium australe) The scrub cherry or brush cherry has pink-red fruit with a texture most commonly described as crunchy, crisp and cool. A prolific bearer.
Ht 2 - 25; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H Winter to Spring.
LIME (Citrus latifolia) Limes are frequently used when green but they do colour to yellow if left on the tree. The fruit makes an attractive garnish, delicious juice and is used often in cooking.
Tahitian -The small to medium fruit is pale lemon-yellow with smooth thin skin. The flesh is a translucent pale green, tender and juicy with a true acid lime flavour. It is best to pick the fruit green as it can suffer from rot if left to ripen on the tree.
Kaffir - Native to Indonesia but widely grown worldwide as a backyard shrub. A very thorny bush with aromatic leaves that add a unique flavour to Thai cooking. The rough bumpy fruit is inedible but its oil has strong insecticidal properties. Well suited to container growing.
Ht 6; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H most of year.
LONGAN (Euphoria longan) A close relative to the lychee tree but much larger, stronger and more cold-tolerant. The fruit is deliciously sweet. A highly ornamental tree with beautiful green leaves and clusters of yellow flowers that have a wonderful scent.
Kohala is a large to very large fruit with an aromatic sweet to spicy taste. The small seed makes this variety superior.
Ht 5; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H February to April.
LOQUAT (Eriobotrya japonica) This evergreen tree has everything going for it, beautiful foliage, fragrant flowers, delicious fruit, and it's easy to grow! The golden-yellow fruit has a pear-like flavour with a touch of apricot and pineapple. It is delicious eaten raw, stewed, preserved, dried and the roasted seeds can be used as a coffee substitute.
Nagasakiwase - the best Japanese variety so far, it has tough skin, deep orange flesh, high flesh/seed ratio and excellent flavour. Earliest variety to ripen.
Bessel Brown - Large to very large fruit with large seed. Thick, orange skin resistant to bruising with firm orange flesh. Very sweet.
Ht 10; Fr High; Pol No; Evergreen; H June to Sept.
LYCHEE (Litchi chinensis) Described as the most luscious of all fruits. We strongly advise the purchase of marcotted trees as they bear in as little as 3 years. The 3 varieties below have proven to be some of the best croppers in a subtropical climate.
Bosworth 3 - Brought to Australia from China in 1932. Small-seeded, very sweet, producing good crops every year from New South Wales to Cape York.
Wai Chee - More susceptible to wind damage than the other varieties. Crops regularly in subtropical climates with high quality ball-shaped fruit. Compact growth habit.
Salathial - (No Mai Chi). Tree has an open dome shape with excellent quality fruit. Well suited to subtropical conditions. Heart-shaped fruit with blotchy yellow-red skin.
Ht 10; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Jan to early Feb.
MACADAMIA (Macadamia species) It isn't any wonder that our very own is regarded as the best quality nut in the world. The nuts are sweet and can be enjoyed eaten raw, roasted, fried, chocolate-coated, candied, made into nut butters, biscuits, cakes and pies. The two edible species M. tetraphylla (Northern NSW) and M. integrifolia (S.E. Qld) make up most of the commercial varieties below.
A268 (limited release) is a medium spreading tree of medium density. Nuts fall mid-season. The A268 performs well over a wide area from Bundaberg to Stuarts Point in NSW. It is hardy and suitable for growing in cool regions, however there is little information available regarding frost tolerance.
Daddow - A vigorous dense spreading tree. An Aust. selection that proved to be one of the best all round performers over six different trial sites throughout QLD and NSW.
A4 - A very precocious tree that can produce commercial yields in three years. It is a medium spreading tree with an open canopy. Mid-season fall. Susceptible to stress from high temperatures, performs well in NSW and cooler regions. Needs extra fertilizer to compensate for its early cropping ability. Can be susceptible to wind damage.
A16 - An Australian selection that shows dwarfing tendencies. High yielder, excellent nut quality. Slow-growing and wind tolerant. Med - large nut and high kernel recovery.
A38 - A vigorous and precocious upright tree that produces a high yield per hectare. It falls mid-season and most of the nuts are borne close in to the main trunk. Well suited to high density planting.
849 - An open spreading, moderately vigorous tree. Good kernel recovery and excellent quality kernel. The best all round new Hawaiian variety in recent industry trials.
Ht 10; Fr Med; Pol Beneficial; Evergreen; H Feb to Oct.
MAMEY SAPOTE (Pouteria sapota) Underneath the Mamey's leathery coarse brown skin is a brilliantly coloured, sweet and creamy flesh. The salmon-pink flesh has an exotic flavour similar to sweet pumpkin pie with spice. Unripe fruits can be cooked as a vegetable.
Ht 12; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H Feb to May.
MALABAR CHESTNUT (Pachira insignis) Overall, this small tree is a handsome landscape addition and one of the most versatile in its uses. The seeds can be eaten either raw or roasted. When roasted or fried in oil they taste like chestnuts or cashews, raw they taste like peanuts and keep for months in a cool, dry place. They can also be ground and used as a flour substitute when baking bread. The young leaves and flowers are cooked and eaten as a delicious vegetable.
Ht 10; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H when pods burst.
MANDARINS (Citrus reticulata) With careful variety selection, mandarins can bear from early April through to late October. Our nursery is involved in the rapid mUltiplication of varieties that have been brought into Australia from some of the best citrus-growing regions of the world.
Okitsu Wase (Satsuma) - are Japanese varieties. They are earliest mandarins in the marketplace.
Miho Wase (Satsuma) Early fruiting and easy peeling. High sugar levels in fruit. Very popular export variety.
Clausellina (Satsuma) - A seedless Japanese-type variety. Large fruit, low tree vigour makes it suitable as a good dwarf variety. From Spain.
Fallglo - good size, colour, flavour and easy peeled. May be seedy if cross pollinated. Moderate vigour, susceptible to cold.
Imperial - is still the most widely planted and most popular variety grown in Western Australia. The fruit has excellent colour and flavour; the skin is smooth, glossy, thin and easy to peel. Older trees may develop a biennial bearing habit.
Fina (Clementine) - vigorous large productive tree, very high quality, small, seedless fruit. Spanish origin.
Sunburst - moderately vigorous, thornless, upright and spreading. Cold hardy. Produce high quality, attractive fruit of the mandarin or tangerine type with good flavour. Reddish-orange rind at maturity. Segments easily separated. Juicy fruit with dark orange flesh colour.
Daisy - Recent variety from Californian that shows promise. Large fruit size, relatively seedless. Early mid-season.
Emperor - The fruit has a pale orange skin that is inclined to be puffy. Excellent flavour, however the fruit can be prone to drying if harvest is delayed. Loose skin that is very easy to peel. Most popular mid-season variety.
Pixie - Late-maturing Californian variety, seedless good flavour. Upright growth and vigorous.
Encore - very late. Fruit holds until November, vigorous tree, thin-skinned.
Ht 4; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H April- Oct.
MANGO (Mangifera indica) This is one of the most luscious of all tropical fruits with flavours varying from exceptionally sweet to turpentine. By planting different varieties of mangoes, harvesting can be extended for up to 12 weeks.
Glenn - is a sweet, strong, juicy flavoured Mango. It has moderate resistance to Anthracnose and very good resistance to Bacterial Black Spot. An excellent early variety. Average wt. 350 g.
Florigon - definitely the winner in the taste department. The soft sweet flesh melts in your mouth. The fruit has a small seed and virtually no fibre. Considered by some to be too small for the market, it certainly makes up for its lack of size with taste. Yellow-skinned, excellent quality fruits. Sets well in subtropics. Moderately resistant to Anthracnose, susceptible to Black Spot. Average wt. 300 g.
Van Dyke - Sweet, slightly turpy flavour. Can have variable quality in some areas. High resistance to Anthracnose and Bacterial Black Spot. Very attractive fruit. Average wt. 280 g.
Kensington Pride - Aust. standard variety, excellent flavour, very juicy and aromatic. Crops irregularly in wet cold areas. Moderate susceptibility to Anthracnose and Black Spot. Average wt. 450 g.
Irwin - A dwarf tree with sweet mild flavour. The tree bears regularly with a moderate yield. Attractive colour. Low resistance to Anthracnose and Black Spot. Average wt. 380 g.
Tommy Atkins - Attractive colour and medium to good quality. Regular, moderate cropper. Good resistance to Anthracnose, susceptible to Black Spot. Popular commercial variety 460 g.
Nam Dok Mai - (Thai-type mango) Green-yellow skin, sweet and juicy with an excellent flavour. Regular cropper in cooler climates. Susceptible to Anthracnose, resistant to Black Spot. Size 375 g.
Kwan - is similar to the Nam Doc Mai, but twice the size. It has elongated fruit of a consistent light yellow. This variety has excellent disease resistance and is a heavy cropper. Performs very well in south eastern Qld and the northern coast of NSW.
R2-E2 - One of the largest and most attractive fruits with good, sweet flavour. High flesh to seed ratio with very slight fibre. Susceptible to Black Spot and Anthracnose. It has proven to be a consistent cropper over a range of climates. Vigorous growth habit. wt 675 g.
Valencia Pride - an excellent choice of mango and is believed by some to set the taste standard. The highly coloured fruit is large and beautiful. The fruit is longer than the Bowen and has a thinner skin. It is a vigorous and upright tree. Consistently productive. 450 g.
Sensation - A medium-sized, oval fruit. Bright yellow skin with a dark red blush. The flesh is pale yellow, firm, slightly sweet with a distinctive mild flavour. Scanty fibres. Vigorous upright tree. Susceptible to Anthracnose, tolerant to Black Spot. 325 g.
Palmer - promising late variety with large elongated fruit. Brightly coloured skin coloured with purple and red. The apricot-coloured flesh is smooth and almost fibreless. Very sweet and good quality. Produces well and is fairly consistent. Susceptible to Anthracnose and Black Spot. Size 500 g.
Ht 6 -15; Fr High; Pol No; Evergreen; H Jan to March.
MIDYIM (Austromyrtus dulcis) This shrub occurs naturally throughout the coastal areas of northern NSW and south east Qld. It produces pretty white flowers and an abundance of fruit. The soft pulp is described as being one of the most delicious of all bush foods. It has a sweet mildly aromatic flavour with soft skin and small edible seeds. A beautiful ground cover and bird attractant.
Ht 1; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Feb to April.
MIRACLE FRUIT (Synsepalum dulcificum) Although not sweet itself this miraculous fruit, consumed fresh and allowed to coat the mouth, alters your taste buds so that every sour thing you eat for around 30 minutes afterwards tastes sweet. The beauty of it is that it only removes the sourness 'acidity' from what you are eating, the natural aroma and taste remains. For success, the plant prefers a pH as low as 4.5. A great companion for your blueberries.
Ht 3; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H April to Sept.
MONSTERA DELICIOSA (Monstera deliciosa) Often called the Fruit Salad plant as the ripened fruit has a pineapple-banana odour and fruit salad taste. The mature fruit has a yellow-green, violet-spotted rind of hexagonal plates covering a creamy-white, soft pulp. Highly ornamental, an excellent choice for heavily shaded positions.
Ht 3; Fr High; Pol Yes; Evergreen; H Feb to July.
MULBERRY (Morus alba) This delicious juicy crimson-black fruit is rarely seen on the supermarket shelves, hence the need to grow it yourself.
Dwarf Black - The large mulberry fruit has an excellent flavour and is ideal for use in jams and mulberry pies. The tree is ideal for backyards as its only half the size of a standard mulberry tree. If pruned in summer, it can produce a second crop.
Shahtoot 'King White' - Often referred to as the best tasting mulberry in the world, this large sweet fruit can reach up to 20 cm in length. It is delicious eaten fresh but can also be sun dried and eaten as a sweet. Medium-sized spreading tree with a weeping habit.
Red Shahtoot - Similar to the white in growth but the fruit has a more tangy flavour.
Ht 10; Fr Med; Pol No; Deciduous; H Aug to Sept.
NARANJILLA (Solanum quitoense) This small orange fruit can be used to make a delicious juice considered a delicacy in South American parts. The tree is very attractive with large leaves that have a purple velvet effect.
Ht 3; Fr Lo w; Pol Low; Evergreen; H Summer.
NASHI FRUIT (Pyrus pyrifolia) Also known as an Asian Pear, this fruit combines the juiciness of a pear with the crispness of an apple. The taste is similar to a pear but is much sweeter. Fantastic storage qualities.
Kosui - A small, flat, bronze russet fruit that is very sweet. Leaves can be sensitive to many sprays. Kosui benefits from cross pollination with Hosui.
Hosui - A very large, juicy, sweet, low acid, bronze-skinned pear that is one of the most popular varieties. Hosui is partially self-pollinating however will benefit from cross pollination with Kosui.
Nijiseeiki - Yellow skin. This variety appears to set fruit without pollination, however the fruit is small.
Ya Li - Pear-shaped yellow fruit. Reputed to be low chill. Known to perform better in cooler climates.
Shinseiki - Round, medium to large, yellow fruit. Crisp creamy white flesh with a mild, sweet flavour. Tastes best when tree ripened. Hangs on the tree in good condition for 4 - 6 weeks. Vigorous and spreading. Self-pollinating with a lower chill requirement than most.
Tsu Li - Chinese variety, pear shaped with green skin. Pollinates Ya Li.
China Pear - Very low chill selection that has acclimatised to the subtropical areas of northern NSW. The quality is inferior to other Nashi varieties but it is excellent as a cooking pear. Self pollinating.
Ht 6; Fr High; Pol Yes; Deciduous; H Jan to Feb.
NATAL PLUM (Carissa grandiflora) An ornamental shrub with large white star-shaped fragrant flowers. The large edible plum has a soft pinkish flesh. With its sharp thorns this shrub makes an effective and almost impenetrable hedge.
Ht 3; Fr Med; Pol Yes; Evergreen; H Feb to April.
NATIVE TAMARIND (Diploglottis cunninghamii) From the same family as exotics such as the rambutan and lychee this fruit has a pleasant tart-apricot taste. The yellow-brown hairy capsules split open to reveal the orange pulp. A great addition to jams, jellies, ice cream and yoghurt or as a refreshing drink.
Ht 10; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H Dec to Feb.
NATIVE GINGER (Alpinia caerulea) All parts of this plant are edible both raw and cooked. The pulp of the blue berries has a pleasant, slightly acid taste, the seed giving a ginger aftertaste. The young tender root tips can be used as ginger and have the same gingery taste. An ideal understory plant. The Aborigines wrapped the leaves around meat and cooked it in an earth oven.
Ht 2; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H all year.
NECTARINE (Prunus persica) Nectarines are very similar to peaches in their requirements and characteristics, the only difference being they don't have the distinctive fuzzy skins. The fruit is much brighter in colour than the peach.
Sunmist (88-11) A white flesh variety requiring up to 350 hours chill. A semi-clingstone variety with nicely shaped fruit that is medium to large with dull purple skin, firm flesh highly resistant to Bacterial spot.
Sun blaze is a yellow-fleshed nectarine needing 250 hours chill. A semi-clingstone with round well-shaped, medium to large fruit. A very attractive skin colour (80 - 90% blush), very firm flesh, excellent flavour and good resistance to bacterial spot.
Sunwright is a yellow-fleshed fruit to 150 hours chill. A semi-clingstone, oval fruit, small to medium size with attractive colour, (80 - 90% blush), slightly soft flesh, good flavour.
White Satin (90-3N) has white flesh requiring 250 hours chill. Beautiful red skin and excellent quality fruit.
Sunraycer (84-16) is a yellow fleshed nectarine. Semi-clingstone with well shaped large sized fruit. Good skin colour and non-browning flesh. Good flavour and high resistance to bacterial spot.
Ht 6; Fr High; Pol No; Deciduous; H Summer.
NEEM (Azadirachta indica) If you are visiting India and ask for the village pharmacy then you're likely to be pointed towards this tree. The discovery of its complex chemical pesticide qualities make it resistant to more than two hundred different types of insect, as well as various mites, nematodes, fungi, bacteria and viruses. Although lethal to bugs, it does not have an adverse effect upon humans, animals or birds.
Ht to 20; Fr Low; Pol No; Tropical evergreen; H all year.
NONI (Morinda citrifolia) Medicinally this odd looking fruit is said to cure everything from stonefish wounds to digestive upsets to far more serious disease. A decoction from the bark, leaves, roots and fruit can be drunk. When ripe or overripe, the skin of the fruit becomes almost translucent and the flesh turns soft and develops an unpleasant odour. The odour has led to nickname of the 'starvation fruit' due to the fact that you would have to be starving to eat it as a fresh fruit.
Ht 6; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Winter.
OLIVE (Olea europaea) A favourite of the Mediterranean, olives make an exquisite accompaniment to alcoholic drinks, dairy foods, breads and relishes. The following multipurpose olives are well-suited for the home grower.
Manzanillo - Medium-sized olive with excellent texture. Generally light green with whitish dots. Mature fruit is dark blue-black with a medium to high oil content. A good performer in the subtropics.
UC 13 - Named by the University of California where it was first selected, this large fruiting type has a small stone and produces heavy crops in hot climates. A spreading tree and good consistent cropper.
Bolzicco - Sourced from a well-established local orchard. Characteristics are very similar to those of the Manzanillo.
Ht 8; Fr High; Pol No; Evergreen; H Feb to April.
ORANGE (Citrus sinensis) listed in order of maturity. New navel selections from overseas are proving equal and superior to the industry standard Washington Navel.
Newhall - Excellent quality, large oblong fruit, regular and good cropper in subtropical areas. Very similar to the Navilina with similar yields.
Navilina - A Spanish variety. Navilina produces fruit of excellent quality and brilliant colour, very early in the season. Good fruit size and naturally develops an outstanding deep red-orange skin which is very attractive.
Fischer - an early maturing variety from California has been found to mature earlier than Washington navel. Fischer yields about the same as Spanish Navilina.
Washington Navel - is the main navel variety grown in Australia. Washington navel has excellent skin colour and taste, and usually produces round fruit.
Navelate - Navelate has excellent flavour, probably equal to Washington navel and generally superior to Lane Late. Fruit is slightly oblong, has excellent rind texture and is a little smaller than Washington navel or Lane Late. Navelate matures about the same time as Washington navel but can be stored mature on the tree about three weeks longer. Navelate is a consistent cropper. Trees are slightly thorny, especially when are young, or in a phase of vigorous vegetative growth.
Hamlin - A mid-season all-purpose orange that is used for both juicing and fresh eating. Very good flavour and vigorous growth.
Arnold Blood - New PVR blood orange. Sweet variety requiring hot dry conditions for best colour. Blood oranges have their own distinctive flavour reminiscent of strawberries.
Pere - Main juicing variety in Brazil. Mid-Season, matures 1-2 months before Valencia.
Valencia - Late variety, very juicy, holds well. The ideal variety to extend the season right through to December. Crops very well in the subtropics.
Midnight Seedless - Fruit matures 2 - 4 weeks ahead of other Valencias. Very thin, tightly adhering rind. Large, round and virtually seedless fruit with an excellent flavour.
Ht 4; Fr High; Pol No; Evergreen; H May to December.
PANAMA BERRY (Muntingia calabura) A highly ornamental tree that bears small red berries within its first year. Blossoming and producing all year round, the flowers are white and followed by small red fruit that is sweet with the taste of caramel. Used fresh or in jams.
Ht 10; Fr low; Pol No; Evergreen; H all year.
PASSIONFRUIT (Passiflora edulis) As well known for its striking flowers as for the fruit itself. Passionfruit vary from round to oval, purple, red or gold. A fast-growing vine that usually returns a crop within 18 months of planting.
Black Passionfruit (P. edulis) - An attractive and hardy passionfruit. The juicy orange flesh has a sweet aromatic flavour. Will tolerate frosts. Self pollinating.
Yellow Passionfruit (P. edulis f1avicarpa) A more tropical variety that has a large golden-skinned fruit with a strong flavour. Some selections can be quite acid. This variety is used as a rootstock for grafted selections due to its disease tolerance and vigour.
Panama Passionfruit - A hybrid passionfruit that is vigorous and more tropical than the black. Fruit is either red or yellow-skinned, very large and generally sweeter than the P. flavicarpa.
Granadilla (Passiflora quandrangularis) - Large fruit to 30 cm. When green, the flesh can be cooked as a squash substitute and when ripe, eaten as a honey dew melon. Frost sensitive.
Sweet Granadilla (Passiflora ligularis) - Regarded as the best tasting passionfruit in the world. The hard-shelled orange-yellow fruit is of excellent quality and has a white aromatic pulp. Production begins in 2 to 3 years. The vine is easily recognized by its heart-shaped leaves. Prefers sheltered conditions. Frost tender when young.
Banana Passionfruit (P. mollissima) - An elongated yellow-skinned fruit with sweet pulp. The pinkish flowers are very attractive. Best suited to temperate climates but can be grown in the subtropics with care.
Grafted Passion fruit
Toms Special - A freak hybrid from Burringbar in northern NSW. It bears fruit of excellent quality and shows a good degree of tolerance to fungal diseases. This variety was used in breeding work and has resulted in some promising selections being made, notably the Super Sweet Selections.
Super Sweet AVI - The pink-skinned fruit is large and has a sweet juicy pulp. A very promising variety that bears regularly and often and shows good disease resistance.
Ht 3; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Winter.
PAW PAW(Carica papaya) These fast growing trees can commence bearing within 12 months of planting. Of three types of paw paws, all can be distinguished by their flowers.
Bisexual Yellow - Large elongated variety that is self-pollinating. Good for backyard planting. Strong vigorous.
Red/Orange Bisexual Paw Paw - Good quality bisexual pawpaw. Performs well.
Selected Commercial Unisexual (M/F) Paw Paw - These are more cold-hardy than bisexual or red types. Two planted per pot to allow for pollination.
Ht 5; Fr Low; Pol Yes; Evergreen; H Most of the year.
PEACH (Prunus persica) These low chill varieties require as little as 150 hours chill, (150 hours below 7°C) in order to bear a good crop of delicious peaches. With correct summer and winter pruning, it's possible to harvest peaches within 2 years of planting. Peaches are white or yellow-fleshed and have an excellent flavour. The varieties listed are selected from extensive breeding programs in Florida and are some of the best varieties to date.
Flordaprince is a yellow-fleshed variety requiring only 150 hours chill. A medium-sized round fruit with a firm skin and good blush. Semi-clingstone.
Flordagold is a yellow-fleshed variety requiring up to 325 hours chill. A semi-freestone peach with rounded medium to large, attractive coloured fruit. Excellent quality.
Tropic Snow is a white-fleshed variety requiring up to 225 hours chill. A freestone peach, round, medium to large with a creamy white skin and outstanding flavour.
Tropicbeauty is a yellow-skinned variety needing only 150 hours chill. A semi-clingstone peach, round, large size and with good-coloured skin. Very firm with excellent flavour.
China Flat is a white-fleshed variety needing 150 hours chill. A freestone heirloom variety that is flat in shape, pale in colour and with a delicious taste. Firm flesh.
Ht 6; Fr High; Pol No; Deciduous; H Early Oct to Nov.
PEACHCOT - A cross between a peach and an apricot, peachcots have the taste of a peach but the visible characteristics of an apricot.
Aztec Gold has yellow flesh and requires up to 300 hours of chill. Good resistance to bacterial black spot.
Ora A has a yellow flesh and is of excellent quality. This variety was developed in Australia.
Ht 6; Fr High; Pol No; Deciduous; H October.
PEANUT BUTTER FRUIT (Bunchosia armeniaca). (There is some confusion between B. armeniaca and B. argentea) This attractive tree has clusters of yellow flowers that are followed by an abundance of dark red fruit to around 2.5 cm long. The rich, sweet flesh has a texture similar to peanut butter. The fruit can be eaten fresh or made into milk shakes.
Ht 5; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Summer to Winter.
PEANUT TREE (Sterculia quadrifida) This tree produces leathery, boat-shaped pods that ripen throughout summer. They split open to display a beautiful bright red interior that contains shiny, black, peanut-sized seeds which have a delicious, nutty flavour. It is a fast-growing highly ornamental rainforest tree. Aborigines ate the nuts both raw and roasted and used the fibrous bark to make nets.
Ht 10; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Jun-Aug, Oct-Jan.
PEAR (Pyrus communis) Fortunately the introduction of low chill varieties mean these fruits can be grown in the subtropics.
Flordahome - Large fruit with green skin and thin tender white flesh. The flesh is very sweet with a juicy melting mild taste. Stores well and is very productive.
Hood - Large, golden-yellow fruit with a creamy white flesh. Great for fresh eating as the flesh is crisp and sweet. Vigorous tree, resistant to blight. Both varieties required for cross pollination.
Ht 6; Fr High; Pol Yes; Deciduous; H Nov - Dec.
PECAN (Carya illinoinensis) Pecan trees are among the best of the multi-purpose trees providing a valuable nut crop and an excellent long-term investment. The trees are long-lived, and unlike other commercial crops, don't have to be replaced in the short to mid-term.
Cherokee - A SP - One of the most prolific varieties known. Suited to high density planting. Medium sized nut.
Pawnee - A SP - A large high quality nut of excellent quality. Precocious early variety with heavy bearing habit.
Mohawk · B SP Large nuts similar to Mahan. Thin shell of attractive appearance. Kernel can exceed 60% of weight of the entire nut. Separates easily from shell; high quality, matures early. Vigorous and hardy tree, prolific bearer.
Cheyenne A - A medium-sized nut with attractive shell. Nuts are loose in the shell. Excellent flavour. Well adapted to mechanical shelling. Good for high density plantings.
Sioux B - Small nut and thin shell that cracks well. The nut is smooth with high quality, excellent flavour and good appearance. Holds well in storage. Vigorous and hardy tree.
Shoshoni - B SP One of the most popular of the new varieties. It is a precocious and heavy-cropping variety in subtropical areas. Good quality, medium to large oval nuts. A vigorous tree with an upright habit that makes an excellent backyard tree. Suited to high density plantings.
Tejas - B SP An outstanding all-round variety. High kernel quality, extremely easy to shell. A good pollen producer and small to medium nut size. Ideally suited to commercial or backyard planting as it holds its green foliage until late in the season.
Cape Fear - A SP A medium-sized nut that is easy to shell and has a high kernel percentage. A light coloured nut of excellent quality. Pollinator for Wichita.
Desirable - A SP Proven variety that produces a large nut with a thick shell. The meaty kernel is of very good quality. Light producer in early years with good production by year 12 when it becomes a prolific and consistent bearer.
Kiowa - B A medium to large nut that is very similar in appearance to the Desirable. The shell is medium to soft. Good quality, late maturing. Pollinate with Cherokee.
Mahan - B Also known as the Lismore nut. Very large, long nut with a thin shell that may be poorly filled on older trees. A vigorous tree and prolific bearer.
Apache - B A vigorous tree producing a large smooth nut with thin shell. Good cracking quality. Excellent rootstock tree. Heavy yield.
Ht 20; Fr high; Pol Yes; Deciduous; H March to May.
PEPINO (Solanum muricatum) A small satin-like fruit streaked with purple stripes and varying from golden-yellow to apricot. The pale yellowish-green flesh has a juicy melon-like texture. It is a delicious, subtle-flavoured fruit similar to a honeydew or rock melon. Closely related to the tomato, this shrub grows in a sprawling habit and makes an excellent ground cover plant.
Kendall Gold - large fruit up to 10 em. Attractive and good eating.
Ht 1; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Jan to May.
PERSIMMON (Diospyrus kaki) A very attractive deciduous tree with spectacular dark-orange autumn foliage. The two fruiting types are made up of:
Astringent: (A) - when unripe, the fruit has a furry unpleasant taste that disappears as the fruit matures. Do not eat them at this stage as they can cause extreme discomfort. The benefits of astringency are that the birds tend to leave the fruits alone until ripening, fruit fly damage is less and their sweet flavour when ripe is excellent.
Non-Astringent (NA) - as the name suggests, there is no astringency so the fruit can be eaten when firm, like an apple, or at various stages of ripening.
Izu - (NA) The earliest maturing of the non-astringent varieties. The medium-sized fruit has a burnt orange skin and soft flesh with a good amount of syrup. The flavour is very good. The tree has slightly dwarfing characteristics. Sets a good crop. 180-200 g. Prone to fruit fly.
Nightingale (A) - A deep-orange flesh that is very sweet and juicy when ripe. A conical large shape. Very high quality flesh that is most often seedless.
Ichikikijiro (NA) - A large flat fruit of excellent quality. Being a dwarf variety, it is well-suited to backyards, but is also a good commercial variety.
Flat Seedless (A) A smooth-textured, juicy fruit of excellent quality. Vigorous grower.
Fuyu (NA) - A main commercial variety. The fruit is large and flat, orange-red in colour with a sweet, mild flavour. It ripens very late in mid-April when fruit fly is less of a problem. Semi-dwarf variety.
Ht 6; Fr High; Pol No; Deciduous; H March to May.
PINE NUT (Pinus pinea) often called the 'Stone Pine'. This name apparently comes from the idea that this tree grows well in stony ground. An attractive large pine tree that bears cones of edible nuts considered a delicacy. Grows best in dry cold areas.
Ht 10; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H yet to be monitored in subtropics
PITAYA (Hylocereus sp) Also known as the Dragon Fruit, the Pitaya is a stunningly beautiful fruit with an intense colour and shape, magnificent flowers and a delicious taste. Once only seen in the finest restaurants, it is fast becoming common-place throughout Australia as a garnish and a delicious fresh fruit. To eat the fruit, serve chilled and cut in half. Scoop out the flesh and seeds much like a kiwi fruit.
Hylocereus undatus is a red-skinned climbing cactus that has received world-wide recognition as an ornamental plant for its large, scented, night-blooming flowers. It produces fruit of 1 kg or more and has a light melon-like taste. The colour of the skin is a beautiful bright red, with translucent white flesh and tiny black seeds. The species is easily recognizable by the triangular cross section of its stem and minimal spines. This species pollinates very well with H. polyrhizus.
The H. polyrhizus has a small fruit up to 1 kg with red skin, dark red flesh and small black seeds. The stems of this species have more spines.
The Selenicereus megalanthus has yellow skin and clear to white flesh containing edible black seeds. It has smaller fruit and higher levels of sugar. There are 2 types available, Red and Yellow. The red although very attractive is not as flavoursome as the yellow variety and requires cross pollination.
Ht 6; Fr Med; Pol Partial; Evergreen; H January to June.
PITOMBA (Eugenia luschnathiana) An excellent ornamental shrub. The pitomba produces bright orange -yellow fruit with soft, melting, juicy flesh with a highly aromatic slightly acid flavour. They are good eaten fresh or made into jelly and preserves. Taste comparable to an apricot.
Ht 4; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Jan to March.
PLUM (Prunus salicina) Grafted plum trees are capable of bearing large crops from 1 year after planting. They make delightful ornamental trees due to their mass display of white blossoms during August. Both self-pollinating and cross-pollinating varieties are available and exhibit very different characteristics.
Gulfruby (8-2) Yellow flesh, clingstone, oval to egg shape, medium-sized if properly thinned, attractive red skin blush, resistant to bacterial spot. Pollinates with Gulfruby and Gulfblaze. 275 hours chill. Mid Oct to Nov.
Gulfblaze (85-1) Red fleshed, excellent full dark red colour, good size and flavour, conical but uniform shape. Pollinates with Gulfruby, Gulfgold. Requires 325 hours chill. Oct to Nov.
Gulfgold (3-4) The yellow flesh is firm with a good flavour and texture. Partially self-pollinating but benefits from pollination with Gulfruby, Gulfblaze. 350 hours chill. Dwarfing characteristics. Bears November to December.
Barlows - This local selection has red to yellow flesh sometimes referred to as the 'Kyogle Plum'. The flesh is very sweet. 400 hours chill. Self-pollinating. Bears November to December.
Iluka Blood A red-fleshed, local blood plum with very sweet, small round fruit. Self pollinating. 400 hours chill. Bears November to December.
Satsuma Red to purple flesh with a freestone. The flavour is good, the growth vigorous and it bears particularly well; in fact, to get large fruits it may require thinning. The firm juicy flesh has a sweet spicy flavour. Self pollinating. 350 - 400 hours chill. Bears November to early December.
Mariposa A blood plum with dark red flesh and large fruit if thinned. The flavour is excellent, the skin glossy red and it has a egg-shaped fruit. 350 hours chill. Bears from November to December.
Ht 4; Fr High; Pol Yes; Deciduous; H Oct to December.
PLUM PINE (Podocarpus elatus) The plum, or brown, pine is an attractive rainforest pine that bears greenish seeds on swollen edible stalks. The purple fruit are grape-like with a sweet juicy pulp that is slightly resinous. It is an attractive hedge due to its contrasting dark and lime green foliage. The timber is popular for cabinet making.
Ht to 40; Fr Med; Pol Yes; Evergreen; H March to July.
POMEGRANATE (Punica granatum) An ornamental shrub producing fruit with a hard, leathery, deep red or yellow rind. When opened, the fruit exposes shimmering translucent kernels. The juicy flesh is tart-sweet and surrounds nutlike seeds that are edible and add a bit of a crunch to the overall texture.
Wonderful - A large, deep purple-red fruit. Flesh is deep crimson in colour, juicy and of a delicious vinous flavour. Seeds not very hard. Good for juicing and eating out of hand. Plant is vigorous and productive. Best commercial variety in California.
Elcite - Large yellow-skinned variety of Spanish origin, soft seeds. Not as attractive as the Wonderful but a pleasant sweet flavour.
Ht 6-10; Fr Low; Pol Partial, Deciduous; H
PUMMELO (Citrus maxima) A tropical citrus fruit with large thick skin. It is similar to a grapefruit although sweeter and far less cold-tolerant.
Bosworth Pink - A quality pummelo when grown in a suitable area with adequate summer heat to develop full sugar content and flavour.
Carters Red - A pink flesh variety, showing great potential in warmer areas.
Ht 5; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H.
POSHTE (Annona scleroderma) This round fruit, although relatively little known, has a rich aromatic and delicious flavour. The fruit is the size of an orange and has a dull green surface with perfectly textured pulp. The tough skin allows it to be handled easily and makes it resistant to insect attack. The seeds separate easily from the luscious perfectly textured pulp.
Ht 15; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H March to June.
QUINCE (Cydonia oblonga) The quince is valued for its high pectin content and is used frequently in jams, jellies and cosmetics. This fruit is one of the few that must be cooked, as it is too tart, hard and unpalatable to eat raw.
Smyrna - A Turkish variety with extremely large fruit, light yellow flesh and bright yellow skin. It can be grown as an attractive tree (or multi-stemmed shrub) and has dark green foliage and a very showy bloom.
Ht 8; Fr High; Pol No; Deciduous; H February to April.
RASPBERRIES (Rubus idaeus) An autumn bearer with good quality berries. These berries are best treated as an annual and need to be cut low to the ground each winter. An easy way to do this is to have them in a position where they can be mowed over. They will re-shoot in spring. Good disease resistance.
Ht 1; Fr High; Pol No; Deciduous; H Feb to April.
RHUBARB (Rheum rhabarbarum) The perennial rhubarb is often referred to as the 'pie plant' due to its use in pies, but it also lends itself to a wide range of muffins, biscuits, cakes, as well as fancier desserts. Versatile in savoury dishes, rhubarb provides a piquant base for marinades and condiments to pair with roasted meats and poultry. It is highly productive and stalks can be harvested within 6 months.
Ht 1; Fr High; Pol No; Deciduous; H Summer.
ROCOTO (Capsicum pubescens) With another common name of 'Hotlips' there is no question of the heat in these perennial chillies. Abundantly fruiting within 6 months, they can be either red, yellow or green.
Ht 3; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H most of the year.
ROLLINIA (Rollinia deliciosa) This is a taste sensation with the fruit tasting of creamy lemon sherbet and lemon meringue pie. The large yellow fruit has a bumpy surface and soft spines. The tree performs best in warm subtropical to tropical conditions, however grafted varieties perform exceedingly well as far south as Coffs Harbour.
Ht 6; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H March to June.
ROSE APPLE (Eugenia jambos) This attractive tree has glossy narrow leaves and dark red new growth. The yellow fruit is 'rose petal' flavoured and in a class of its own for taste. The tree is virtually never with fruit or flowers, fruiting for about 6 months of the year. The white fluffy flowers are spectacular and attract many bees and birds with their fragrance. A beautiful ornamental plant.
Ht 7; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Jan to Feb.
SANTOL (Sandoricum koetjape) This yellow form of the Santol has round yellow fruit with a very thick velvety skin. The divided fruit segments can be consumed raw or as in India, eaten with spices. By removing the seeds it makes a tasty jam or jelly.
Ht to 15; Fr med; Pol No; Evergreen, H Feb to March.
SAPODILLA (Achras sapota) This small brown furry fruit looks similar to the outside of a Kiwifruit. The rich brown flesh has a soft melting texture and is very sweet with a taste like caramel or brown sugar. They are best eaten fresh by spooning the chilled flesh from the thin skin. The flesh is delicious mixed with orange juice and topped with cream.
Ht 8; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H July to Dec.
SMALL LEAF TAMARIND (Diploglottis cambellii) A medium-sized tree that produces good sized fruit with a refreshing acid but pleasant taste. The fruit is well suited to jam or wine making. A superior selection, highly recommended.
Ht to 25; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H summer.
SONCOYA (Annona purpurea) The soncoya is a large spiny fruit leading people to nickname it the 'porcupine' fruit. The bright orange, aromatic flesh suggests a hint of mango. Very much appreciated by Asian people who add it to soups and savoury dishes.
Ht 10; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H TBC.
SOURSOP (Annona muricata) The fruit is heart-shaped with a rough green skin and soft fleshy spines. The fresh meaty flesh is juicy and slightly acid, producing a rich creamy thirst-quenching juice. Superb when fruit is pureed with 1/3 of vanilla ice cream. The fruit can also be dried into a sweet fruit leather. Grafted varieties have the least acid flavour and least fibrous consistency. Immature soursops are cooked as vegetables, used in soup or roasted.
Ht 10; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H March to July.
STAR APPLE (Chrysophyllum cainito) A relative of the Abiu, this spectacular ornamental tree has large green leaves with a vibrant golden underside. The round purple fruits display a beautiful central star design when sliced open. The semitranslucent flesh is soft, sweet and juicy. It has a wonderful caramel-vanilla milkshake flavour.
Haitian - The purple fruit is well-formed and of a very high quality. A heavy yielding tree.
Weeping - The fruit is a tennis ball-size, purple and of a very good quality. Originated as a seedling of Haitian. Attractive weeping foliage.
Also available, Grimmel and Pink.
Ht 8; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H January to March.
SWEET POTATO (Ipomea batatas) The Sweet Potato is a perennial trailing plant that develops fleshy tuberous roots.
Hernandez - a new orange-fleshed variety from the US with a good shape, colour and uniformity of size.
Eureka - A promising commercial variety with heavy cropping characteristics and orange flesh.
Ht 50cm; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H most of the year.
SWEETSOP/SUGAR APPLE (Annona squamosa) This interesting tropical fruit has succulent segmented flesh that is creamy-white, delightfully fragrant and juicy. The taste is similar to custard-like taste. Delicious eaten raw (preferably chilled), in fruit salads, ice creams and drinks.
Ht 5; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H March to June.
TAMARILLO (Cyphomandra betacea) or Tree Tomato is a fast-growing small tree that bears heavy crops of red or yellow sub-acid succulent fruit. The fruit has many uses apart from being eaten fresh, such as being cooked in any way tomatoes would be cooked. Tamarillo chutney and jam is a taste treat. The yellow-fruiting variety is usually milder and sweeter with slightly smaller fruit.
Ht 4; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Feb to April.
TAMARIND (Tamarindus indica) This large tropical tree produces a bean pod that contains a paste-like flesh that is sweet and tart, similar to that of a dried apricot. Very popular in Asian dishes and sauces.
Ht 20; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H Sept to March.
TANGELO (Citrus reticulata x C. paradisi A mandarin-grapefruit cross that is the juiciest of all citrus. The flavour is very rich and best eaten when fully ripe.
Minneola - is a medium to very large, round to bell-shaped fruit with a pronounced neck. The deep orange to red-orange coloured skin has a smooth pebbly peel. Very few seeds. H July - Sept.
Seminole - This fruit is large and grapefruit-shaped with a deep red/orange skin. It is very juicy, seedy and has a rich sweet flavour with a grapefruit character. A heavy cropping tree. H Sept - Nov.
Ht 6; Fr Med; Pol Partial; Evergreen; H July to November.
TANGOR - A mandarin-orange cross noted for its sweetness.
Hickson - Noted for its superb flavour, the fruit is of medium size and is easily peeled. Can suffer from winter yellowing. H July August.
Honey Murcott - Small to medium-size flat fruit with a yellow/orange skin. The fruit is smooth and easy to peel. Has some seeds. Its rich red flesh is honey-sweet and juicy, with a lovely fragrance. Frost sensitive. H Aug - Sept.
H 6; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H July to September.
TEA (Camellia sinensis) The tea plant belongs to the camellia family and looks very similar. The tea bush is quite hardy and makes an attractive hedge with the added bonus of providing your own tea leaves.
Ht 3; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H most of the year.
UGNI (Ugni molinae) This popular little ornamental plant should be planted anywhere the aroma from the fruit can be appreciated. It is ideal grown as a low-growing hedge or a container specimen. The small glossy dark-green leaves are tinged with a beautiful red growth when young. The plant becomes smothered with fluffy white flowers and the fruit is best eaten on its own to really appreciate the unique aromatic flavour.
Ht 2; Fr Med; Pol No; Evergreen; H Dec - February.
WAMPEE (Clausena lansium) This subtropical fruit tree is native to southeast China where the fruit is highly regarded. The yellow-skinned fruit grows in grape-like clusters. The flesh is slightly acid, pleasantly aromatic, jelly-like and is excellent eaten fresh or in desserts, jams, or drinks. The tree is quite hardy and grows to perfection in the subtropics.
Guy Sahm - proven to be an excellent fruit, with a sweet tangy aromatic flavour. Brown-skinned variety.
Yeem Pay - elongated, large yellow-skinned variety. Heavy cropping and very sweet.
Ht 8; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Nov to Dec.
WALNUT (Juglans regia) This nut tree is better suited to cold climates than many of the other cold climate nuts. Fast-growing with best results achieved on deep soils with good drainage. Cross pollination gives heavier nut set.
Placentia - Medium-sized nut with a smooth, thin shell. Tree is heavy bearing with good quality fruit. Partially self-pollinating. Low chill requirements.
Ht 15; Fr Low; Pol Yes; Deciduous; H March to May.
WAX JAMBU (Syzygium jambolana) This fast-growing tree bears attractive red pear-shaped fruit that is crunchy and one of the most refreshing on a hot summers day. The trees grow and crop well in the subtropics provided they are protected from frost when young.
Ht 6; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Jan to Feb.
YACON (Polymnia sonchifolia) The Yacon is a vigorous, herbaceous perennial plant related to the sunflower. The plant produces large tubers similar in appearance to sweet potatoes, but they have a much sweeter taste and crunchy flesh. The plants are extremely hardy and will grow in hot or cold conditions.
Ht 1; Fr High; Pol No; Deciduous; H most of year.
YAM/OCA (Oxalis tuberosa) The Yam is a small, red, waxy, crinkled tuber. The tubers have a tangy, acid, nutty flavour and are a great accompaniment to roast dinners.
Ht 1; Fr Med; Pol No; Deciduous; H most of the year .
YELLOW MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia xanthochymus) A round fruit with very tart yellow segments. The high acidity makes it ideal for jams and jellies but removing the seed and skin can be time-consuming. It is much easier to grow in the subtropics than the purple mangosteen. The tree grows well in shade.
Ht 8; Fr Low; Pol No; Evergreen; H Winter to Autumn.
DATE: August 2002
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